Agriculture Business Ideas: Now farming is no longer just the bread farming of June 2, but today’s farming is becoming an industry. People are earning well even from less land. By doing organic farming, not one or two but thousands of youth are climbing new steps of success.
We are talking about organic cotton farming here. Dr. Mayank Rai, senior agricultural scientist and in-charge of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gautam Budh Nagar, explains that cotton has a prominent place in India’s fiber crops and it is a cash crop. Textiles are made from cotton fiber and after extracting its fiber, its cotton seed is used for feeding animals. Cotton seed oil is also extracted from cottonseed.
According to Dr. Rai, now people have come to know the ill effects of chemical farming and are adopting organically produced products. The importance of organic farming of desi, soft and Bt cotton is increasing continuously in India. Organic farming of cotton automatically increases the importance of those products containing its fiber, cottonseed and oil.
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Long fiber cotton is considered the best, whose length is 5 cm, medium fiber cotton which is 3.5 to 5 cm in length and short fiber which is 3.5 cm in length.
Weather and Soil for Cotton Cultivation (Organic Farming)
Dr. Mayank Rai explains that the temperature of 20 degree centigrade to 30 degree centigrade is required for the cotton plant. There should be clear weather, strong and bright sunlight at the time of blooming of tinda. This gives shine to the fiber and the tinde blooms completely. For organic farming of cotton (Kapas Ki Kheti), at least 60 cm of rainfall is required.
For organic farming of cotton, the soil should have water holding and drainage capacity. In areas where there is less rainfall, cotton is cultivated in the Matiyar land. The pH value of the soil should be 5.5 to 6.0. However, cotton can be cultivated even in land up to 8.5 pH value.
sowing time and method
Cotton is sown at two times. Sowing once in a dry field before the rain, and sowing it after the rain. Sowing before the rains is called early sowing. In this, sowing is done in dry field 7-8 days before monsoon.
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Seeing the accumulation after the rain, they again give seeds to the empty space. In this method the production is more. Generally this sowing takes place between June 10-20, the second time is for sowing after rain.
Cotton is sown in a line. Sowing of desi cotton is done at 30X15 cm. Sowing of hybrid and American cotton is done at 45X90 cm.
The amount of seed depends on the variety to be sown. Hybrid cotton 450-500 grams of seed is sufficient for one acre of land. For sowing indigenous cotton, 5-6 kg seed is required.
Organic manures and bio-fertilizers
For organic farming of cotton, apply 30 to 40 tons per hectare of cow dung or vermicompost 25 to 30 tons per hectare in the field 15 days before sowing. Also, after spreading 500 kg of Ghanjeevamrit, plow the field well and level the field by running a pat. Do not leave the field open after applying manure. Use of biofertilizers Rhizobium, PSB, Potash and Zinc soluble bacterial culture while doing seed treatment before sowing.
Soil treatment is essential for organic farming of cotton. For soil treatment, mix 2.5 to 3 kg per hectare Trichoderma viridi with 150 to 200 kg vermicompost or cow dung and cover it with a thick polythene seat and keep it in shade for 10-12 days. After 3-4 days, mix it again and cover it. After this, before sowing, at the time of last ploughing, spread it evenly in the field.
Seed Treatment (Cotton Seed)
To prevent seed borne diseases, treat the seed with Trichoderma organic fungicide @ 5-10 g/kg of seed. This will get rid of diseases caused by fungi like root rot, stem rot, damping off, udder, scorch etc. After this the seed is infected with Azotobacter, P.S. B. And treated with potash bio-fertilizer (NPK bio-fertilizer) and dried in shade should be sown.
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Dr. Mayank Rai explains that sulfur is very important in the organic crop of cotton. For this, before flowering, a solution of organic soluble sulfur 2 percent is sprayed on the crop. Spray twice at an interval of 7 days. In this way, you can do organic farming of cotton by using liquid organic manure.
Organic Cotton Production
In the year 2020-21, 8,10,934 metric tonnes of organic cotton has been produced. Whereas in comparison, 3,35,712 metric tonnes of organic cotton was produced during 2019-20 and 3,12,876 metric tonnes in 2018-19. This shows that the yield of organic cotton is increasing continuously.
The Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare is implementing the Cotton Development Program under the National Food Security Mission (NFSM) in 15 major cotton producing states with an aim to increase the yield and productivity of organic cotton. ICAR – Central Cotton Research Institute (CICR) is working on technology development and research for increasing the production of organic cotton in the country. The government is also promoting organic farming through the Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) project.
Organic cotton is cultivated mainly in 15 states of India including Madhya Pradesh (3,83,133 MT), Maharashtra (1,68,009 MT), Gujarat (85,782), Odisha (1,06,495).
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