What is computer memory and its types?

What is computer memory and its types

In computer fundamentals, we have to know about memory, sorry computer memory. So let’s know briefly What is computer memory and its types?

What is computer memory and its types?

Memory is a very important part of the computer because without memory we cannot do any work in the computer, if we have to give any instructions to the computer or to input any kind of data, then memory is also needed for that. falls.

The memory in the computer is located in the motherboard in which programs and data are stored and whenever the CPU needs data and programs for any kind of processing, it directly accesses the memory, and the kind of data needed. It is taken from memory.

[expander_maker id=”3″ more=”Read more” less=”Read less”] In simple words, Memory is just like our brain which is used to store data and instructions, there are mainly two types of memory in computers, primary memory, and secondary memory.

What is computer memory and its types
What is computer memory and its types

What are Bits and Bytes?

bit or bytes, The data stored in the memory is converted into 0 or 1 as 0 and 1 are jointly called binary digits. In short, they are also called bits. This bit is the smallest unit of measurement of the space occupied by the computer’s memory.

8 Bits = 1 Bytes
1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte (1 KB)

1024 KB = 1 Megabyte (1MB)

1024 MB = 1 Gigabyte (1 GB)

1024 GB = 1 Terabyte (1 TB)

Types of Computer Memory

Computers have more than one memory, we can generally classify them as primary and secondary memory. Primary memory is both volatile and non-volatile. Temporary Memory Keeps the data temporarily from the computer being turned on till the computer is turned off, that is, when the computer suddenly shuts down or the power goes out, the data is destroyed from the computer.

Permanent Memory Starts your computer. helpful in doing It contains some very useful firmware which helps in boosting the computer. The process of starting the booting computer is called main memory. Secondary storage is the one that keeps our data for a long time. Secondary storage comes in many forms. Floppy Disk, Hard Disk, CD, etc.

  • Primary Memory
  • Secondary Memory
Types of computer memory

What is Primary Memory?

Memory is the most important part of the computer where data, information, and programs are present during the process and are available immediately when needed. This memory is volatile memory because the data written in it gets erased when the computer is turned off or the power goes out. is called primary memory. It is also called primary memory or main memory.

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What is computer memory and its types

Types of Primary memory

There are mainly two types of primary memory –

  • RAM
  • ROM
What is RAM (Random Access Memory)

RAM or Random Access Memory is the temporary memory of the computer. The data inputted from the keyboard or any other input device is stored in the RAM itself before processing and CPU. Data or program is temporarily stored in RAM, when the computer is turned off or the power goes out, the data stored in RAM is erased. That’s why RAM is called Volatile or Temporary Memory, the capacity or size of RAM is of many types such as – 4 MB, 8 MB, 16 MB, 32 MB, 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB etc. There are three types of RAM.

What is computer memory and its types

  • Dynamic RAM
  • Synchronous RAM
  • Static RAM
What Is Dynamic RAM?

Dynamic RAM is abbreviated as DRAM. The most common in RAM is DRAM and it needs to be refreshed very quickly. Refresh means here the chip has to absorb electricity, it is refreshed thousands of times in a second, and every time it is refreshed, it erases the subject matter before its speed due to its quick refresh. are less. What is computer memory and its types.

What is Synchronous RAM?

Synchronous RAM is much faster than DRAM. The reason for its fast speed is that it is a CPU. Refreshes according to the speed of the clock. That is why it transfers data faster than DRAM.

Static RAM

Static RAM is such RAM that is less refreshed. Due to less refresh, it keeps the data in memory for a longer time. S-RAM is faster and more expensive than DRAM.

What is ROM (Read only memory)?

The full name of ROM is Read Only Memory. This is the permanent memory in which the programs are stored at the time of manufacturing the computer. Store programs in this memory cannot be changed or destroyed, they can only be read. Therefore this memory is called read only memory. Even after the computer is switched off, the data stored in the ROM is not destroyed. Hence ROM is called non-volatile or permanent memory. There are different types of ROM which are as follows –

  • PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)
  • EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)
What is PROM?

The full name of PROM is Programmable Read Only Memory, it is such a memory, that once the data is stored in it, it cannot be erased nor changed. What is computer memory and its types

What is EPROM?

The full name of EPROM is Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, it is similar to PROM, but the stored program in it can be erased only by ultraviolet rays, and new programs are stored (Store). can be done

What is Secondary Memory? (What is Secondary Memory)

Secondary Storage Device is also called Auxiliary Storage Device. It is not a part of the computer. It is connected separately to the computer. The data that is stored in it. It is permanent. That is, when the computer is turned off, the data stored in it is not deleted.

According to the need, it can be viewed in the future by opening the saved files or folders in it. Or you can improve it. And it can also be deleted by the user. Its storage capacity is high. Secondary storage devices can store many times more data than primary memory, which is transferable and the speed of accessing data is slower than primary memory. Secondary memory includes floppy disk, hard disk, compact disk, optical disk, memory card, pen drive, etc.

What is Hard Disk?

Hard Disk or HDD is the same thing, it is a physical disk that we use to store all the small and big files of our computer. The difference between hard disk and RAM is that hard disk is the thing that is used to store, but RAM is used to run the things kept in that storage. When we turn off the computer, then anything lying in the RAM gets cleared. But even when the computer is turned off on the HDD, the data is not erased. What is computer memory and its types

A disk rotates inside the hard disk, the faster the disk rotates, the faster it can store or read data. We measure the speed of rotation of the hard disk in RPM (Revolutions Per Minute). Most of the hard disk is of 5400 RPM or 7200 RPM, obviously, the hard disk of 7200 RPM is faster than the 5400 RPM one.

Hard Disk Structure and Procedure

A hard disk is made up of a magnetic disk. It has ahead for reading and writing data. The hard disk has a central shaft. In which a magnetic disc is attached. Data is not stored on the top surface of the hard disk and on the bottom surface. Data is stored on all other surfaces. The plate of the disc consists of Track and Sector. Sectors store data, 512 bytes of data are stored in a sector.

There are three types of time taken to store and read the data. which is the following.

  • Seek Time:-. The time taken to reach the track that reads or writes the data to the disk is called seek time.
  • Latency time:- The time taken to reach the data sector in the track is called latency time.
  • Transfer Rate:- The time it takes to write and read data in the sector. It is called the transfer rate.
What is Floppy Disk?

It is made of plastic with a layer of ferrite lying on it. It is made of very flexible plastic. That’s why it is called Floppy Disk. On which there is a plastic grave. which is called a jacket. A point is made in the middle of the floppy through which the disk of this drive rotates. There are 80 data tracks on this floppy disk and 64 words can be stored in each track. It works like magnetic tape. Which rotates at the rate of 360 RPM per minute. Due to this, the problem of damage to its recording head arises.

What is computer memory and its types

There are two types of floppy from a tax point of view:-

Floppy Disk with a diameter of 5½

Floppy Disk with a diameter of 3½

5½ Diameter Floppy Disk – It was invented in the year 1976 and it is also protected by a plastic jacket. Its storage capacity varies from 360 KB to 2.44 MB.

3½ Diameter Floppy Disk – It was first used in Apple computers. Which is smaller than the previous floppy. Its storage capacity varies from 310 KB to 2.88 MB.

What is Magnetic Tape?

Magnetic tape is also a storage device in which there is a thin tape on which magnetic ink is coding, it is used to store analog and digital data. It is like the audio cassettes of old times. Magnetic tapes are used to store large amounts of data. They are cheap Even today it is used to make a backup of the data.

What is an optical disk?

An optical disk is a flat, circular polycarbonate disk, on which data is stored in the form of pits inside a flat surface, in which the data is stored by optical.

What is computer memory and its types

There are two types of optical discs. CD and DVD

What is CD?

CD:- First of all, let’s talk about CD, we also call CD by the name of the compact disc, it is such an optical medium that saves our digital data. There was a time when we used to use reeled cassettes, and the invention of the CD completely killed the cassettes in the market. About 700 MB of data can be saved in a standard CD. The data in a CD is saved in the form of a dot, in fact, the laser sensor installed in the CD drive reads the reflected light from the CD’s dot and creates an image in our device.

What is DVD?

DVD:- DVD means Digital Versatile Disc, DVD was started after CD, although both CD and DVD look the same, there is a difference in their data capacity, more data can be saved in DVD than CD. . Meaning the user can save data from about 4.7 GB to 17 GB in DVD. After the advent of DVD, there was a huge decrease in the demand for CDs in the market.

What is Flash Drive?

Pen Drive itself is known as Flash Drive, nowadays most of the Flash Drive is used to store data, it is an external device that is used separately in the computer. It is also very small and light in size, Store data can also be read in it and it can also be improved.

Flash Drive has a small Pried Circuit Board which is covered with a plastic or metal cover so it is strong. This is a Plug-and-Play tool. Today it is normally available in 2 GB, 4 GB, 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB, 64 GB, 128 GB etc capacity.

What is a Memory card?

A memory card is considered a small storage medium that is commonly used to store information. A memory card is a type of storage media often used to store photos, videos, or other data on electronic devices. Devices that commonly use memory cards include digital cameras, digital camcorders, handheld computers, MP3 players, PDAs, cell phones, game consoles, and printers. It is also used for small, portable, and remote computing devices.

The amount of storage space may vary depending on the type of memory card. However, in general, most memory cards today range in size from 4 GB (gigabyte) to 128 GB. The old memory cards were smaller than 4 GB.

What is a Magnetic Disk?

A magnetic disk is a storage device that uses the magnetization process to write, rewrite and access data. It is covered with a magnetic coating and stores data in the form of tracks, spots, and sectors. Hard disks, zip disks, and floppy disks are common examples of magnetic disks.

A magnetic disc mainly consists of a rotating magnetic surface and a mechanical arm that moves on it. The mechanical arm is used to read and write from the disc. Data on a magnetic disk is read and written using a magnetization process. The data is organized on the disc as tracks and sectors, where the tracks are circular partitions of the disc. The track is divided into areas that contain blocks of data. All read and write operations on magnetic disks are performed on sectors.

EXTRA knowledge

  1. Memory is the storage of any instructions, information, or results.
  2. Memory is an integral part of C.P.U, it is also called main memory, internal memory, or the primary memory of the computer.
  3. The full form of RAM is Random Access Memory.
  4. Random-access memory is the temporary memory of the computer.
  5. The full form of ROM is Read-Only Memory.
  6. Read-only memory is the permanent memory of the computer.

There are different types of memory cards available on the market, links to more information on the most commonly used types of memory cards are listed below.

  • CF (CompactFlash)
  • MicroSD
  • MMC
  • SD Card
  • SDHC Card
  • SmartMedia Card
  • Sony Memory Stick
  • xD-Picture Card
  • Zip Drive

What is Zip Drive?

A ZIP drive is a small, portable disc drive primarily used to back up and store personal computer files. The trademarked Zip drive was developed by Iomega Corporation in the mid-1990s. Zip drives and discs come in two sizes.

The size of 100 megabytes is actually equal to 100,431,872 bytes of data, or 70 floppy diskettes. There is also a 250-megabyte drive and disk. The Iomega Zip Drive comes with a software utility that lets you copy the entire contents of your hard drive to one or more Zip discs.

It was popular at launch because the cost per storage unit was lower than that of a hard disk, and it could store a larger amount of data than a floppy disk. Zip drive was durable and reliable capable of fast data transfer.


So, now I hope you all are know all about computer memory. Know what is computer memory and its types. Thanks, guys. [/expander_maker]

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